Types of Wines
Natural wines are wines without sulphites, without added yeasts, unfiltered and not clarified, without additives of any kind, a live product in constantly evolving and with expiry date, are author wines that seeking least interventions in the countryside as well as in the cellar. It has a minor production but high prices. His naysayers claim that they are wines with failures, but his supporters do not anything else. Here are some premises to meet:
1. CROP environmentally friendly: this type of crop is practiced by some type of agriculture as the ecological or biodynamic one or merely traditional methods that are followed by using only natural products. Natural cycles are respected. Chemical fertilizers, herbicides, pesticides, systemic fungicides or genetically engineered organisms aren't used.
2. THE WINEGROWER is the AUTHOR: the winegrower manage the vineyard, he is the responsible of all the work done and the policy-making.
3. GENUINENESS and UNIQUENESS: the grape must reflect the conditions on the land and the year in which the grapes were harvested. It's a manual work and craftsmanship.
- The wine is not clarified, in order to preserve the natural and unique characteristics of the wine.
- Commercial yeasts aren't used and any other product to accelerate or activators of alcoholic fermentation.
- Malo-lactic bacteria strains aren't used to speed up the process or activate the alcoholic fermentation.
- Malo-lactic bacteria strains aren't used to speed up or activate the malo-lactic fermentation.
- The acidity is not remedied (with tartaric acid, citrus or any other substance).
- It isn't head up with alcohol.
- Ascorbic acid, sorbic acid or potassium sorbate, and antibiotic aren’t added or used.
- Flavours aren’t added.
- Wood chips or wood pieces aren’t used in order to scent.
- Reverse osmosis, concentration, cold maceration or any other technique that supposed an artificial decomposition of the components of grape juice or wine.
- Is not clarified, in this case it is the wine itself that does this operation, with help and time in his favour.
- Is not filtered, therefore it does not eliminate the natural components that are also beneficial for the natural evolution of the wine.
4. SULFUR DIOXIDE IS NOT USED (SO2 ―sulphite―): the wine doesn’t have SO2 (sulphite) added, the SO2 amount level endorsed by official analyses must correspond to something generate by the wine during his process either variances produced by the analytics methods, never ever by the winegrower.
5. It EXPLAINS THE WHOLE PROCESS TO DO and what is explained is done: Honesty and transparency are the principal values of natural wine makers. The customer is always informed of the production process carried out. So chemical analyzes are available to customers and consumers whenever they need them.
There is always coherence and concordance between what is transmitted and informed, and the wine produced.
There is no better phrase that can express all this than that which the creators of these wines often say: "The grape goes from the grape vine to the bottle".
It is understood as those wines that have been elaborated and personalized by the same person, the winemaker, which is personally involved in the design and is committed to supervising the entire production process that goes from the cultivation of the grapevine to the wine marketing.
In each and every stage of production, the oenologist is moulding the personality of the wine, and for this he makes use of all his technical knowledge, as well as style, experience and personality.
The winemaker has a total creative freedom to play and combine colours, aromas, textures and flavours as a painter experiences in his work of art, which allows him to extol the characteristics of the grape variety selected, the weather conditions of the landscape and the homeland where the vine is, which results in a wine of a unique and very personal character. A production, in short, inimitable and unique.
During this process, the criterion and decisions taken by the winemaker are totally free, unrelated to any legislation and / or parenting code that has been provided by the Supervisory Councils.
The author's wine always pursue quality in the face of quantity, so it always vie for a higher quality raw material, producing smaller harvests, guaranteeing a more exhaustive control and the highest quality.
The wine must meet and fulfil a key assumptions exposed very clearly that must be applied not only during the process of production but also to the land where the vine is cultivated, the grapes and the conservation of the broth.
Some of these premises are:
-The fertilisers used must be organic natural, of vegetable origin (such as marc or over-ground shredded vine ―vine strain grapes―) and animal origin (such as manure or compost).
-Wines must be made from the ecological raw material.
-At the addition of sulphites must have a control that should generally be added in conventional verification in order to improve the preservation of the wines (Inhibiting bacteria and moulds as well as oxidation of wines)
-You should not apply any flinty fertiliser.
-It is absolutely forbidden to burn stubble to maintain the microbial flora.
Apart from all this information, it is preferable to choose the most suitable time for maturation of the grape, which usually occurs in late dates, in order to achieve a higher concentration of anti-Oxidant substances in wine, which are essential components and the most beneficial to health.The partial dealcoholisation of the wine or the elimination of anhydrous sulphur dioxide by diversified chemical processes is totally prohibited.
This type of wine is included within the group called "Organic Wines" as well as organic wines, however the method of elaboration followed for its elaboration is more complex than the last classes of wines mentioned above.
It must be taken into account that biodynamic wine is not only a typology, but must also be considered as a philosophy of life where science, work and the very natural sustainability comes into play and that interconnects the earth with space.
This interconnection is based on the principle of Rudolf Steiner (father of biodynamic), who states that everything that comes from the earth has to return to it, after exceeding the production process, therefore, any compound that has been used in this production must have been previously obtained from nature without having involved any industrial processes. And this is how both vegetable and mineral preparations are used, as well as fertilization additives, all of which are combined with the use of an astronomical calendar that dominates the times of planting, healing and harvesting of the grapes.
Preparation 500:is a preparation of a horn of cow which is filled with manure and buried during the autumnal season to some 15.7 inches of the surface. This horn decomposing in the following winter season, and remains buried until the beginning of spring. When the horn is extracted, then diluted in water and spread throughout the surface of the vineyard. Thanks to this process, the soil can be nourished and take advantage of all the microorganisms that benefit and facilitate the development of the grape.
Preparation 501: is a preparation that is based on the burial of quartz powder in cow horn, is a very similar procedure to the preparation 500, the difference is that this procedure is carried out in spring and is extracted in autumn. It is used to avoid diseases that can cause rains or the different kinds of moulds.
Fertilisers: for the preparation of biodynamic fertilisers are used some plants such as herbs and even flowers. Some of them are:
- Chamomile Flower.
- Dandelion Flowers.
- Horsetail Herb.
- Oak Bark.
The calendar is based on the positions of the moon which has a basic function in each of the processes that are carried out.
Fruit Day: when the moon is positioned in a constellation of fire (Aries, Leo or Sagittarius), the activity of the plants is polarised especially in the production of the fruits.The wine increases the fruit and floral nuances, and those that derive from a meticulous production to obtain a perfect adaptation of the variety to the terroir.
Root Day: when the moon is in a terrain constellation (Taurus, Virgo or Capricorn), the plant promote the roots, and the wines emphasize the tannic hints and the particular character of the variety applied to a specific soil (minerality).
Flower Day: when the moon is in an air constellation (Gemini, Libra or Aquarius), the flowers of the plants are the ones that take up the baton and assume the function of the priority activity and the fundamental nuances of the wine are reflected with strength.
Leaf Day: when the moon is in a water constellation (Cancer, Scorpio or Pisces), the activity of the plant suit de leafs, reinforcing vegetal aromas that could be of great interest in white wines with character herbaceous that nevertheless do not favour the red wine tasting.
The biodynamic concept goes furthermore the wine and the estate. Around the cellar exists some characteristics to bear in mind.
The structure of the cellar is built following curved directives, without corners, because curves represent an infinity bound to space. On the other hand, the corners break with the traditional shape and innovate in a new form.
Grass and straw are essential in this place, especially in the periphery of the cellar, either on the walls or on the same terrain, as both absorb the solar energy during the hours of sun and then later during the night , they refer to the whole ambiance.
Red wine is a type of wine coming supremely from red grape juice, with the appropriate elaboration in order to achieve the complete diffusion of the colouring matter which contains the grape skins.
The white wines could be elaborated with white grapes or red grapes, but must have vinify in white, namely without any contact with grape skins. In this case (red grapes), the grapes are grinded and the grape skins are separated immediately in order to conserve the juice with a proper colour white.
Rosé wine is supposed to be produced in a different form of the red wine, but alike that, sometimes could be with white grapes. Rosé wines acquire their colour just like red wines, as the juice of the grape comes into contact with the grape skins of the red grape during the fermentation process. The difference between both lies in the contact, that is shorter in rosé wine.
(From French vermout or vermouth, and these latest, from German wermut, that means “wormwood” or “absinthe”) This is a wine macerated in herbs which is served during the appetizers, and is composed by white wine, wormwood and otherbitter substances. These wines are typically Europeans, with unique flavour which grants an elegance brand for a cocktail or an appetizer. Popularly there may be two types: red and white. Red vermouth (Italian) has a sweet taste, on the other hand, the white wine (French) has a dry taste, higher alcoholic degree.
This type of wines can be considered as the most original and genuine Spanish wine. It is made from Palomino grapes or Pedro Ximénez grapes in the denominations of Jerez, Shire of Huelva and Montilla-Moriles according to traditional processes of biological farming, following the system of aging and “soleras”, with an alcoholic graduation above 15 degrees. They are liqueur wines and “amontillados wines of Jerez” and the Shire, as well as the chamomiles of Sanlúcar de Barrameda.